Vaughn defines the term multimedia to mean any combination of text, graphic art, sound, animation and video that is delivered to you by computer or other electronic means. In other words, the term multimedia simply means a “combination of media.”

Linear Multimedia

  • Family_watching_television_1958


  • Passive Observation
  • Television or Film
  • Time based

Nonlinear Multimedia


  • Some choice is introduced
  • Navigational control over sequence
  • Control over the timing of delivery
  • Examples online tutorials, cbt, kids games



  • Navigation through linked elements
  • Structure to work through the content
  • Plenty of choice
  • Example is the Internet


Multimedia in Education

F1.largeHow do we see Multimedia used in Education?

smart board –  phet simulation

youtube video – explain concept, concise, readily availble

interactive quizzes – formative feedback, student engagement, immediate feedback

schoology and digital classroom –  content management system

educreation – app for visual presentation

desmos – graphic  calculator

imovie – as presentation application, assessment of language skills

powerpoint –




  • Visual representation

  • Multi-sensory approach

  • Increased motivation

Research suggests that human beings are primarily visual learners and yet we spend very little classroom time learning to create or interpret visual messages.

Multimedia presentation tools allow pictures, video clips and animations to be easily mixed with text and sound.

If research suggests that using visuals is a good way to teach, it also tells us that using a multi-sensory approach is even better because different students learn in different ways

Multimedia tools allow all types of media to be integrated in ways that will accommodate different learning styles.

Research also suggests that involvement precedes interest. Getting students involved in a topic a good way to motivate them to learn.

Computers and multimedia products seem to hold a special attraction for children. Many commercial programs offer an engaging problem or simulations events to attract and hold learner interest.


  • Memory and storage demands

  • Digital divide and Access issues

  • Time-based Interaction

There are also limitations on the use of multimedia in classrooms.

Digital video resources place huge demands on computer memory and storage. For example, one hour digital video programming consumes approximately 12GB of storage space. Audio files, still photographs, and computer animations are also memory intensive applications.

Discovery learning strategies take longer to deliver in the classroom than direct instruction strategies. When we use these strategies, we may want to consider being less time conscience, and reward creativity and exploration as much as achievement.

We needed to work on developing effective teaching methods and strategies for integrating multimedia into teaching and learning.

Supplementary SAMR Resources

Ruben Puentedura on Applying the SAMR Model

Resources to Support the SAMR Model