Module 9: Additional Resources


  • Absolute advantage: the ability of an individual or region to produce goods and services more efficiently.
  • Comparative advantage: the ability of an individual or region to produce goods and services at a lower cost.
  • Exports: products produced in a domestic market and sold in a foreign market; products and services flowing out of a region.
  • Free trade: trade between countries that is free of tariffs, duties and taxes, and other non-tariff barriers.
  • Gains from trade: the net increase in welfare that accrues to producers or consumers depending on whether the country is importing or exporting.
  • Imports: products produced in a foreign market and sold in a domestic market; products and services flowing into a region.
  • Lobby groups: groups or individuals that intend to sway policy decisions in their favour.
  • Non-tariff barriers: restrictive regulations that reduce trade that generally take the form of quotas, regulations, licences, etc.
  • Protectionism: actions taken by a country to protect domestic industries from competition from foreign goods.
  • Specialization: when an individual or country focuses production on a limited scope of products and services such that there are efficiency gains.
  • Tariffs: fees or duties imposed on imports or exports.
  • Trade: exchange of goods and services for currency or other goods and services.
  • Trade policy: rules and regulations surrounding the exchange in goods and services between regions.


Global Affairs Canada. (2016). Notice to importers. Government of Canada. Retrieved from:

Sorensen, C. (2016, November 4). Why looming trade troubles are bad news for Canada. Maclean’s. Retrieved from:

Supplementary Resources

Mankiw, G. (2015, April 24). Economists actually agree on this: The wisdom of free trade. New York Times. Retrieved from:

Radcliffe, B. (2015, December 28). The basics of tariffs and trade barriers. Investopedia. Retrieved from: